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Struvite and Vivianite Removal


Struvite encrusted watstewater treatement plant pipe teated with FreshAWL Z-AMP treated Stuvite
Bottom half of this Struvite encrusted collection pipe was treated with Z-AMP.
FreshAWL®Z-AMP™ solution is the key to continued system functionality at WWTPs is which is specifically designed to prevent the bonding of the Ammonium, Magnesium and Phosphorus (Struvite), as well as other scale particulates including Vivianite and Calcium carbonate.

Struvite scaling commonly occurs as a problem in dewatering filtrate or lagoon decant streams and in spots with local turbulence, such as pipe elbows, mixer blades and pumps.

Scaling particulates may also be found in boiler systems and cooling towers. Click here to see more information on treating cooling tower scale with Z-AMP. Z-AMP will remove these particulates eliminating the need to employ costly and dangerous equipment for augering or power blasting which can lead to high risk breakage. Or in worst cases complete equipment replacement.

Vivianite is a hard, dense blue-gray precipitate of hydrated ferrous phosphate (Fe3 (PO4)2 • 8H2O). Dewatering of anaerobically digested sludge (a combination of primary and waste activated biosolids) can often result in scale formation caused by the precipitating of vivianite as seen in the pictured flow valve or struvite.

The release of biologically retained phosphorus under the anaerobic conditions in the digester causes the digesting sludge to reach a saturated condition with respect to phosphate. Exposure to air and turbulence during sludge dewatering strips out carbon dioxide, resulting in a slight rise in the pH, which is enough to lead to the phosphate precipitation.

Vivianite encrusted watstewater treatement plant flow valve prior to Z-AMP treatment. Five (5) day treatment for total Vivianite Removal
Vivianite encrusted wastewater treatment plant flow valve prior to Z-AMP treatment.
  • Z-AMP is a powerfully safe solution for the complete deconstruction of hydrated Ferrous sulfate or Vivianite.
  • Z-AMP is a nonhazardous solution that completely and safely dissolves the Struvite into reclaimable ammonia gas plus magnesium and phosphate for use in agriculture or for fertilizer purposes.
  • Z-AMP is also ideal for the treatment of boiler systems.
  • Z-AMP will effectively perform in freezing temperatures.
The Z-AMP solution can be run through the closed off plant section to be treated with a circulation pump. Here is the same flow valve after a five (5) day treatment in Z-AM
  1. The wastewater treatment plant flow check valve weighed 123.03 lbs. prior to treatment with Z-AMP and 102.38 after treatment.
  2. A total of 20.65 lbs. of vivianite was removed from the check valve as seen in this photo.
  3. 20.65 lbs. of vivianite was removed from the check valve.

Calcium carbonate scaling is a type of precipitation and occurs when calcium (Ca2+) and carbonate (CO3-2) ions dissolved in water react to form solid calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Calcium carbonate is also controlable with freshAWL Z-AMP

When the product of the calcium Ca2+ and carbonate ion CO3-2 concentrations is greater than the calcium carbonate solubility product (KS), the water is supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate and precipitation can occur.

Like Struvite and Vivianite, Calcium carbonate scaling is also easily deconstructed and maintenance controlled with Z-AMP.
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